Publications: Putting Knowledge to Work

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Hicks, D., Doolittle, P. E., & Lee, J. (2004). History and social studies teachers’ use of classroom and web-based historical primary sources. Theory and Research in Social Education. 32(2), 213-247.
Currently, there is limited research that examines the extent to which history and social studies teachers are actually utilizing primary and secondary sources that are accessible in traditional classroom-based formats versus current web-based formats. This papers seeks to explore this gap in the literature by reporting on the results of a comprehensive survey that examines the extent to which history and social studies teachers are using classroom and web-based historical primary sources and the ways in which they were using them. In particular, we ask: To what extent has the availability of web-based historical primary sources impacted history and social studies teachers' use of historical primary sources in the classroom? In order to successfully answer the above question, the following supporting questions were examined. How and why are history and social studies teachers using classroom-based historical primary sources? How and why are history and social studies teachers using web-based historical primary sources? The finding suggest that teachers use classroom based and web-based resources in varying ways and to differing degrees.

Hicks, D., Doolittle, P. E., & Ewing, T. (2004). The SCIM-C strategy: Expert historians, historical inquiry, and multimedia. Social Education. 68(3), 221-225
Understanding history is a challenge. In order to provide teachers with a tool that can help students acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to interpret primary sources and reconcile various historical accounts, this paper explains the SCIM-C strategy. Grounded in research on teaching and learning history, the SCIM-C strategy focuses on five broad phases: Summarizing, Contextualizing, Inferring, Monitoring, and Corroborating. When students examine an individual source, they move through the first four phases (i.e., summarizing, contextualizing, inferring, and monitoring) and then, after analyzing several individual sources, they compare the sources collectively in the fifth phase (i.e., corroborating). The paper introduces the online multimedia SCIM-C historical Inquiry Tutorial, and models the phases of the SCIM-C strategy, including the four spiraling analyzing questions for each phase.

Bolick, C., Hicks, D., Lee, J., Molebash, P., & Doolittle, P. E. (2004). Digital libraries: The catalyst to transform teacher education. AACE Journal, 12(2), 213-233.
Digital libraries are changing the way academic disciplines within universities are conceptualized. The nation's scholars are investing their careers and millions of dollars to use technology to rethink the nature of their disciplines. These advances are affecting academic research and instruction as academic disciplines restructure in response to technologies. This article presents a framework for how digital libraries should be used in teacher education.

Hicks, D., Carroll, J., Doolittle, P., Lee, J., & Oliver, B. (2004). Teaching the mystery of history. Social Studies and the Young Learner. 16(3), 14-16
This paper/lesson plan introduces teachers and students to the "Mystery of Sam Smiley." A simulation designed to have students play the role of detective and find out what happened to Sam Smiley. The lesson supports the development of strategies that enable students to: (a) explore historical questions; (b) comprehend and work with ideas from various sources; (c) recognize and attempt to reconcile conflicting accounts; and (d) construct explanations and narratives that reveal an understanding of historical context and chronology. A word file is also available that introduces an earlier version of this lesson. A new interactive multimedia version of the mystery of Sam Smiley was also created

Doolittle, P. E., & Hicks, D. (2003). Constructivism as a theoretical foundation for the use of technology in social studies. Theory and Research in Social Education, 31(1), 72-104.
The National Council for Social Studies has explicitly advocated technology integration into the social studies classroom to transform the teaching and learning of key social studies content and skills. While the call for technology integration into the social studies classroom is clear, the application of technology within the realm of social studies has traditionally been theoretically underdeveloped. One theoretical foundation that has promise for framing the discussion of technology and social studies integration is constructivism. Within this paper the current relationship between social studies education and technology is explored, the nature of constructivist philosophy, theory, and pedagogy is delineated, and principles for the integration of technology in social studies that supports an explicit constructivist foundation are posited.


The Historical Inquiry project was funded by an IDDL Research Fellowship and a FIPSE grant.
Copyright © 2004-2005, Peter Doolittle, David Hicks, & Tom Ewing, Virginia Tech